What drivers should be installed on a location machine (without a SQL Server DBMS installation) so I can connect to SQL Server?
If the location is the server containing the DBMS installation itself, the drivers are installed with it.
If not, to connect to SQL Server HVR requires SQL Server 2012 Native Client package to be installed.
If you search for SQL Server 2012 Native Client on download.micosoft.com , you may be linked to Microsoft ODBC Driver 11 for SQL Server.
HVR, however, is linked with SQL Server Driver Extensions DLL (which is required for BCP to work), and that makes ODBC Driver 11 for SQL Server unsuitable for use with HVR. The right driver package is still called Microsoft SQL Server 2012 Native Client, and is available as part of the Microsoft SQL Server 2012 Feature Pack.